Predictors of Preoperative Anxiety among Surgical Patients in Iran: An Observational Study

  • Neda Khalili Tehran University of Medical Sciences
  • Kasra Karvandian Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Hasan Eftekhar Ardebili Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Negar Eftekhar Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Omid Nabavian Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Keywords: Anxiety, Spielberger, Surgery, State-trait anxiety inventory


Background: Patients undergoing surgery experience significant anxiety in the preoperative period. The aim of the present study was to identify the level of preoperative anxiety among Iranian patients in surgery clinics and its predictive factors.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire was used to assess the patients’ preoperative anxiety. Results were analysed using the Chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis.
Results: 246 patients were randomly selected, 222 of which were finally included in our analysis. In this study, the state and trait anxiety levels were moderate and low, respectively. Both state and trait anxiety levels were significantly higher among females (p-value 0.03 and 0.009, respectively). Also, patients with higher education had higher state and trait anxiety levels (p-value 0.001 and <0.001, respectively). Patients undergoing aesthetic surgeries had significantly higher state anxiety levels compared to other surgeries (p-value 0.04). Interestingly, the history of surgery was not significantly associated with state anxiety (p-value 0.96). Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, marital status, and education were the most predictive factors for state anxiety. These factors along with the place of residence were also predictive for trait anxiety (p-value <0.05).
Conclusion: Since these predictive factors are not amenable to change before elective surgery, identification of patients with higher anxiety levels is essential. Further studies investigating preoperative anxiety a few days prior to surgery in the Iranian population should be warranted.


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How to Cite
Khalili N, Karvandian K, Eftekhar Ardebili H, Eftekhar N, Nabavian O. Predictors of Preoperative Anxiety among Surgical Patients in Iran: An Observational Study. Arch Anesth & Crit Care. 6(1):16-2.
Research Article(s)