Archives of Anesthesiology and Critical Care 2016. 2(1):150-153.

Promoting Knowledge and Practical Skills of Interns in Transport of Critically Ill Patients: Small Group Teaching Method
Mohammad Taghi Beigmohammadi, Mojgan Rahimi, Omid Nabavian, Fateme Kamalitabar


Background: Transport of the critically ill patient is potentially risky and the transport team should be careful in making decision and be prepared to deal with them in any condition. Our physicians are not qualified in safe transport. We want to evaluate the effect of small group teaching method for promotion of physicians' skills in transport of critically ill patients.

Methods: In an interventional study, 161 interns took part in one day workshop planned in small group system. Each participant under observation of an anesthesiologist in operation room and intensive care unit (ICU) was acquainted with mask ventilation, intubation and learned working with defibrillator, infusion pump, portable ventilator and pulse oximeter. Their knowledge and skill was scored by pre and post tests in all items.

Results: In our precipitants, 62 males and 99 females; training caused improvement in their abilities about care and monitoring of patient during transport. The offered training caused improvements in the interns’ knowledge and ability of intubation, ventilation and use of defibrillator and ventilator (P<0.005). The competency of males was better than females in laryngoscopy but progress of females was significantly better than males (P=0.003).

Conclusion: This method could promote knowledge and skill of interns in transport of critically ill patients.


knowledge; skill; small group; transport; critically ill

Full Text:



Warren J, Fromm Jr R E, Orr R A, Rotello L C, Horst H M. Guidelines for the inter- and intrahospital transport of critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2004; 32(1):256-62.

Fraser S, Grenfell R, Crellin W, Mooney E, Jones D, Williams I, et al. Guide to patient transfer: principles and minimum requirements for non-time critical inter hospital patient transfer. State of Victoria, Department of Health 2012, Available from: http//

Fanara B, Manzon C, Barbot O, Desmettre T, Capellier G. Recommendations for the intra-hospital transport of critically ill patients. Crit Care. 2010; 14(3):R87.

Dunn M J G, Gwinnutt C L, Gray A J. Critical care in the emergency department: patient transfer. Emerg Med J. 2007; 24(1):40-4.

Droogh J M, Smit M, Hut J, Vos R de, Ligtenberg J J M, Zijlstra J G. Inter-hospital transport of critically ill patients;expect surprises.Crit Care. 2012; 16(1):R26.

Fan E, MacDonald R D, Adhikari N KJ, Scales D C, Wax R S, Stewart T E, Ferguson N D. Outcomes of interfacility critical care adult patient transport: a systematic review. Crit Care. 2006; 10(1):R6.

Papson JP, Russell KL, Taylor DM. Unexpected events during the intrahospital transport of critically ill patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2007; 14(6):574-7.

Stevenson VW, Haas CF, Wahl WL. Intrahospital transport of the adult mechanically ventilated patient. Respir Care Clin N Am. 2002; 8(1):1-35.

Gillman L, Leslie G, Williams T, Fawcett K, Bell R, McGibbon V. Adverse events experienced while transferring the critically ill patient from the emergency department to the intensive care unit. Emerg Med J. 2006; 23(11):858-61.

Tice P. Intrahospital transport of critically ill adults: potential physiologic changes and nursing implications. Focus Crit Care. 1991; 18(5):424-8.

Lahner D, Nikolic A, Marhofer P, Koinig H, Germann P, Weinstabl C, et al. Incidence of complications in intrahospital transport of critically ill patients--experience in an Austrian university hospital. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2007; 119(13-14):412-6.

Damm C, Vandelet P, Petit J, Richard JC, Veber B, Bonmarchand G, et al. [Complications during the intrahospital transport in critically ill patients]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2005; 24(1):24-30.

Lovell MA, Mudaliar MY, Klineberg PL. Intrahospital transport of critically ill patients: complications and difficulties. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2001; 29(4):400-5.

Shirley PJ, Stott SA: Clinical and organisational problems in patients transferred from the intensive care unit to other areas within the hospital for diagnostic procedures. Br J Anaesth. 2001; 87:346-7.

Doring BL, Kerr ME, Lovasik DA, Thayer T. Factors that contribute to complications during intrahospital transport of the critically ill. J Neurosci Nurs. 1999; 31(2):80-6.

Beckmann U, Gillies DM, Berenholtz SM, Wu AW, Pronovost P. Incidents relating to the intra-hospital transfer of critically ill patients. An analysis of the reports submitted to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study in Intensive Care. Intensive Care Med. 2004; 30(8):1579-85.

Walton H. Small group methods in medical teaching. Med Educ. 1997; 31(6):459-64.

Nieder G L, Parmelee D X, Stolfi A, Hudes P D. Team-Based Learning in a Medical Gross Anatomy and Embryology Course. Clin Anat. 2005; 18(1):56-63.

Bercault N, Wolf M, Runge I, Fleury JC, Boulain T. Intrahospital transport of critically ill ventilated patients: a risk factor for ventilator-associated pneumonia--a matched cohort study. Crit Care Med. 2005; 33(11):2471-8.

Hopkins P, Wolff A H. Intensive care transfers. Critical Care. 2002; 6(2):123-4.

Marx G, Vangerow B, Hecker H, Leuwer M, Jankowski M, Piepenbrock S, et al. Predictors of respiratory function deterioration after transfer of critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med. 1998; 24(11):1157-62.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.