Archives of Anesthesiology and Critical Care 2016. 2(3):226-230.

Bedsore: Epidemiology; Risk Factors; Classification; Assessment Scales and Management
Seied Hadi Saghaleini, Kasra Dehghan, Kamran Shadvar, Ata Mahmoodpoor, Sarvin Sanaie, Zohreh Ostadi


Bedsore is a very important problem in bedridden patients. It affects patients’ lives and imposes substantial costs to society. Its incidence approaches 38% and its annual prevalence is estimated to be 14.8% in patients who are admitted in hospitals.

The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) and the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) define bedsore as “a localized injury to skin and/or its underlying tissues as a result of pressure, shear or a combination of those and usually present over a bony prominence.

Proposed mechanisms for the development of pressure ulcers include friction or shear force over the skin. Several scales have been introduced in clinical studies in order to assess the risk for development of bedsores. Four of the most important scales are Braden scale, Norton scale, Waterlow scale and Cubbin & Jackson scale.

Based on literature review it seems that, using appropriate dressings, repositioning the patient, optimizing nutritional status, and moisturizing sacral skin are best ways for management and prevention of pressure ulcers.


Bedsore;Epidemiology; Risk Factors; Classification; Assessment scales and Management

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