Intraoperative Fluid Therapy for Major Surgeries: A Narrative Review
Intraoperative fluid equilibrium is a decisive matter in perioperative anesthesia management, because most of evaluation studies consider intraoperative fluid administration as a major participating agent in improving or worsening patient outcomes after surgery and it revolves within the responsibility of an anesthesiologist. The understanding of fluid physiology in the human body, clinical features of available intravenous fluid, and nature of surgery indeed will contribute to the success plan of management. Maintaining of patients’ physiological milieu by preserving normal extracellular volume, adequate tissue perfusion, and a balanced acid base condition are the main goals of intraoperative fluid infusion. This review was conducted to overview fundamental basics of fluid therapy during the intraoperative period. Due to the dearth of supporting data for appropriate volume and the available definitions of restrictive and liberal are diffident, the polemic about which particular method of volume expansion still exists. Colloid versus crystalloid controversy in surgical patients is still going on and this would again be encouraged to be a topic for many clinical trials in the future. The current findings’ trend prefers guided and restricted intraoperative fluid therapy with isotonic balanced crystalloids because such fluids are cost effective and have fewer side effects than other fluids.
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