Review Article

Problems of the Medical Staff and Supporting Them in Fighting against COVID‐19 Epidemic

Abstract

Background: COVID‐19 has a significant impact on public health and poses a challenge to medical staff, especially to front‐line medical staff who are exposed to and in direct contact with patients. Medical staff were under enormous physical and psychological pressure due to overwork, high risk of infection, and isolation during COVID-19.
Methods: The aim of this study was to review the literature on health problems of medical staff and supporting program for them during COVID-19 pandemic disease. Literature searches were performed on the following databases: Pubmed, Sciencedirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, ProQuest, SID, Iranmedax and Magiran. The types of articles published during the outbreak that were relevant to the subject were searched.
Results: A review of the literature showed that current research focuses on assessing several aspects of COVID-19-induced mental health in medical staff. Stress, anxiety, sleep disorders, depression, burnout, fatigue and physical problems are among the serious issues of the medical staff in the front line of the Corona fight. Various demographic variables such as gender, occupation, long working hours, history of mental illness and psychological variables such as poor social support, self-efficacy were important risk factors.
Conclusion: Regular screening of medical staff involved in the treatment and diagnosis of patients with COVID-19 should be performed to assess physical and psychological problems using multidisciplinary psychiatric teams

[1] Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382(13):1199–207.
[2] World Health Organization [Internet] Geneva: WHO characterizes COVID-19 as a pandemic. [cited 2020 March 11]. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen.
[3] Sabet A, Jabari O, Alipour S, Sabet M R. Investigating the relationship between stress management and organizational commitment among nurses during Covid-19 pandemic, with the mediating role of communication skills training. jmis. 2020; 6(2):1-10.
[4] Aziziaram S, Basharpoor S. The Role of Rumination, Emotion Regulation and Responsiveness to Stress in Predicting of Corona Anxiety (COVID-19) among Nurses. Nursing Management. 2020; 9 (3) :8-18.
[5] Vahedian-Azimi A, Moayed MS, Rahimibashar F, Shojaei S, Ashtari S, Pourhoseingholi MA. Comparison of the severity of psychological distress among four groups of an Iranian population regarding COVID-19 pandemic. BMC psychiatry. 2020; 20(1):1-7.
[6] Pan YT, Wang H, Chen SR, Zhang C. Research on the strategy of solving the psychological crisis intervention dilemma of medical staff in epidemic prevention and control. Chin Med Ethics. 2020; 21:1‐5.
[7] Sarboozi Hosein Abadi T, Askari M, Miri K, Namazi Nia M. Depression, stress and anxiety of nurses in COVID-19 pandemic in Nohe-Dey Hospital in Torbat-e-Heydariyeh city, Iran. J Mil Med. 2020; 22 (6) :526-533
[8] Buysse DJ. Insomnia. JAMA. 2013; 309(7):706-16.
[9] Wang S, Xie L, Xu Y, Yu S, Yao B, Xiang D. Sleep disturbances among medical workers during the outbreak of COVID-2019. Occup Med (Lond). 2020; 70(5):364-369.
[10] Qi J, Xu J, Li BZ, Huang JS, Yang Y, Zhang ZT, Yao DA, Liu QH, Jia M, Gong DK, Ni XH. The evaluation of sleep disturbances for Chinese frontline medical workers under the outbreak of COVID-19. Sleep Medicine. 2020; 72:1-4.
[11] Mitchell MD, Gehrman P, Perlis M, Umscheid CA. Comparative effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: a systematic review. BMC Fam Pract. 2012; 13(1):40.
[12] Gao YQ, Pan BC, Sun W, Wu H, Wang JN, Wang L. Anxiety symptoms among Chinese nurses and the associated factors: a cross sectional study. BMC Psychiatry. 2012; 12:141.
[13] Dongbo W, Mingrui H, Yueda P, Yongmei B, Demin H. Analysis of nurse anxiety and its influencing factors. Journal of China Medical University. 2018; 47(10):921–923.
[14] Wu J, Wu X, Wu F, Dia Y, Dechun C, Gong X. Survey of sleep quality of clinic-al front-line nurses and its influencing factors in the fight against new coronavirus pneumonia. Nursing Research. 2020; 344:558-62.
[15] Xiang YT, Yang Y, Li W, Zhang L, Zhang Q, Cheung T, et al. Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020; 7(3):228-229.
[16] Mo Y, Deng L, Zhang L, Lang Q, Liao C, Wang N, et al. Work stress among Chinese nurses to support Wuhan in fighting against COVID-19 epidemic. J Nurs Manag. 2020; 28(5):1002-1009.
[17] Feng J, Yang J. Discussion on medical personnel's emotion changes under the sudden public health accident. Hosp Adm J PLA. 2004; 04:373‐374.
[18] Teles MA, Barbosa MR, Vargas AM, Gomes VE, e Ferreira EF, de Barros Lima AM, Ferreira RC. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2014; 12(1):1-2.
[19] Malinauskiene V, Leisyte P, Romualdas M, Kirtiklyte K. Associations between self-rated health and psychosocial conditions, lifestyle factors and health resources among hospital nurses in Lithuania. J Adv Nurs. 2011; 67(11):2383-93.
[20] Hsiao S J, Tseng H. T. The impact of the moderating effect of psychological health status on nurse healthcare management information system usage intention. Healthcare (Basel). 2020; 8(1):28.
[21] North TC, McCullagh P, Tran ZV. Effect of exercise on depression. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 1990; 18:379-415.
[22] Liang Y, Wu K, Zhou Y, Huang X, Zhou Y, Liu Z. Mental Health in Frontline Medical Workers during the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease Epidemic in China: A Comparison with the General Population. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020; 17(18):6550.
[23] Zhu J, Sun L, Zhang L, Wang H, Fan A, Yang B, et al. Prevalence and Influencing Factors of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in the First-Line Medical Staff Fighting Against COVID-19 in Gansu. Front Psychiatry. 2020; 11: 386.
[24] Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, Cai Z, Hu J, Wei N, et al. Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open. 2020; 3(3):e203976.
[25] Teng Z, Huang J, Qiu Y, Tan Y, Zhong Q, Tang H, et al. Mental health of front-line staff in prevention of coronavirus disease 2019. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2020; 45(6):613-619.
[26] Liu Y, Aungsuroch Y. Work stress, perceived social support, self-efficacy and burnout among Chinese registered nurses. J Nurs Manag. 2019; 27(7):1445-1453.
[27] Su Q, Guo L. Relationship between psychological elasticity, work stress and social support of clinical female nurses. Chinese Occupational Medicine. 2015;42(1):55-8.
[28] Chew NWS, Lee GKH, Tan BYQ, Jing M, Goh Y, Ngiam NJH, et al. A multinational, multicentre study on the psychological outcomes and associated physical symptoms amongst healthcare workers during COVID-19 outbreak. Brain Behav Immun. 2020; 88:559-565.
[29] Zhang WR, Wang K, Yin L, Zhao WF, Xue Q, Peng M, et al. Mental Health and Psychosocial Problems of Medical Health Workers during the COVID-19 Epidemic in China. Psychother Psychosom. 2020; 89(4):242-250.
[30] Şahin MK, Aker S, Şahin G, Karabekiroğlu A. Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety, Distress and Insomnia and Related Factors in Healthcare Workers During COVID-19 Pandemic in Turkey. J Community Health. 2020; 45(6):1168-1177.
[31] Liu Y, Chen H, Zhang N, Wang X, Fan Q, Zhang Y, et al. Anxiety and depression symptoms of medical staff under COVID-19 epidemic in China. J Affect Disord. 2020; 278:144-8.
[32] Maunder RG, Lancee WJ, Balderson KE, Bennett JP, Borgundvaag B, Evans S, et al. Long-term psychological and occupational effects of providing hospital healthcare during SARS outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006; 12(12):1924-32.
Files
IssueVol 7 No 3 (2021): Summer QRcode
SectionReview Article(s)
Published2021-07-31
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/aacc.v7i3.6904
Keywords
COVID-19 Medical staff Anxiety Depression Insomnia Psychosocial problems

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
1.
Imanloo A, Sharafi H, Rezaei F, Imanloo A, Barkhordari F. Problems of the Medical Staff and Supporting Them in Fighting against COVID‐19 Epidemic. Arch Anesth & Crit Care. 2021;7(3):157-161.